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CSS Container Queries | Style-Tricks


Container queries are sometimes thought of a contemporary strategy to responsive net design the place conventional media queries have lengthy been the gold normal — the reason is that we are able to create layouts made with parts that reply to, say, the width of their containers quite than the width of the viewport.

.dad or mum {
  container-name: hero-banner;
  container-type: inline-size;

  /* or container: hero-banner / inline-size; */
}

}

.little one {
  show: flex;
  flex-direction: column;
}

/* When the container is larger than 60 characters... */
@container hero-banner (width > 60ch) {
  /* Change the flex path of the .little one component. */
  .little one { 
    flex-direction: row;
  }
}

Why care about CSS Container Queries?

  1. When utilizing a container question, we give parts the flexibility to alter based mostly on their container’s measurement, not the viewport.
  1. They permit us to outline all the types for a specific component in a extra predictable means.
  1. They’re extra reusable than media queries in that they behave the identical regardless of the place they’re used. So, for those who had been to create a element that features a container question, you might simply drop it into one other challenge and it’ll nonetheless behave in the identical predictable vogue.
  1. They introduce new varieties of CSS size models that can be utilized to measurement parts by their container’s measurement.

Registering Parts as Containers

.playing cards {
  container-name: card-grid;
  container-type: inline-size;

  /* Shorthand */
  container: card-grid / inline-size;
}

This instance registers a brand new container named card-grid that may be queried by its inline-size, which is a flowery means of claiming its “width” after we’re working in a horizontal writing mode. It’s a logical property. In any other case, “inline” would consult with the container’s “peak” in a vertical writing mode.

  • The container-name property is used to register a component as a container that applies types to different parts based mostly on the container’s measurement and types.
  • The container-type property is used to register a component as a container that may apply types to different parts when it meets sure circumstances.
  • The container property is a shorthand that mixes the container-name and container-type properties right into a single declaration.

Some Potential Gotchas

Querying a Container

@container my-container (width > 60ch) {
  article {
    flex-direction: row;
  }
}
  • The @container at-rule property informs the browser that we’re working with a container question quite than, say, a media question (i.e., @media).
  • The my-container half in there refers back to the container’s identify, as declared within the container’s container-name property.
  • The article component represents an merchandise within the container, whether or not it’s a direct little one of the container or an additional ancestor. Both means, the component should be within the container and it’ll get types utilized to it when the queried situation is matched.

Some Potential Gotchas

Container Queries Properties & Values

Container Queries Properties & Values

container-name

container-name: none | <custom-ident>+;
Worth Descriptions
  • none: The component doesn’t have a container identify. That is true by default, so you’ll probably by no means use this worth, as its function is only to set the property’s default conduct.
  • <custom-ident>: That is the identify of the container, which might be something, apart from phrases which might be reserved for different capabilities, together with defaultnoneatno, and or. Word that the names should not wrapped in quotes.
  • Preliminary worth: none
  • Applies to: All parts
  • Inherited: No
  • Percentages: N/A
  • Computed worth: none or an ordered listing of identifiers
  • Canonical order: Per grammar
  • Animation: Not animatable

container-type

container-type: regular | measurement | inline-size;
Worth Descriptions
  • regular: This means that the component is a container that may be queried by its types quite than measurement. All parts are technically containers by default, so we don’t even have to explicitly assign a container-type to outline a method container.
  • measurement: That is if we need to question a container by its measurement, whether or not we’re speaking concerning the inline or block path.
  • inline-size: This enables us to question a container by its inline measurement, which is equal to width in a normal horizontal writing mode. That is maybe probably the most generally used worth, as we are able to set up responsive designs based mostly on component measurement quite than the dimensions of the viewport as we might usually do with media queries.
  • Preliminary worth: regular
  • Applies to: All parts
  • Inherited: No
  • Percentages: N/A
  • Computed worth: As specified by key phrase
  • Canonical order: Per grammar
  • Animation: Not animatable

container

container: <'container-name'> [ / <'container-type'> ]?
Worth Definitons

If <'container-type'> is omitted, it’s reset to its preliminary worth of regularwhich defines a method container as an alternative of a measurement container. In different phrases, all parts are fashion containers by default, until we explicitly set the container-type property worth to both measurement or inline-size which permits us to question a container’s measurement dimensions.

  • Preliminary worth: none / regular
  • Applies to: All parts
  • Inherited: No
  • Percentages: N/A
  • Computed worth: As specified
  • Canonical order: Per grammar
  • Animation: Not animatable

Container Size Items

Container Width & Top Items

Unit Title Equal to…
cqw Container question width 1% of the queried container’s width
cqh Container question peak 1% of the queried container’s peak

Container Logical Instructions

Unit Title Equal to…
cqi Container question inline measurement 1% of the queried container’s inline measurement, which is its width in a horizontal writing mode.
cqb Container question block measurement 1% of the queried container’s inline measurement, which is its peak in a horizontal writing mode.

Container Minimal & Most Lengths

Unit Title Equal to…
cqmin Container question minimal measurement The worth of cqi or cqb, whichever is smaller.
cqmax Container question most measurement The worth of cqi or cqb, whichever is bigger.

Container Type Queries

Container Type Queries is one other piece of the CSS Container Queries puzzle. As a substitute of querying a container by its measurement or inline-size, we are able to question a container’s CSS types. And when the container’s types meet the queried situation, we are able to apply types to different parts. That is the form of “conditional” styling we’ve needed on the net for a very long time: If these types match over right here, then apply these different types over there.

CSS Container Type Queries are solely obtainable as an experimental characteristic in trendy net browsers on the time of this writing, and even then, fashion queries are solely able to evaluating CSS {custom} properties (i.e., variables).

Browser Help

The characteristic remains to be thought of experimental on the time of this writing and isn’t supported by any browser, until enabled by means of characteristic flags.

Desktop

Chrome Firefox IE Edge Safari
128 No No 125 TP

Cellular / Pill

Android Chrome Android Firefox Android iOS Safari
125 No 125 No

Registering a Type Container

article {
  container-name: card;
}

That’s actually it! Really, we don’t even want the container-name property until we have to goal it particularly. In any other case, we are able to skip registering a container altogether.

And for those who’re questioning why there’s no container-type declaration, that’s as a result of all parts are already thought of containers. It’s lots like how all parts are place: relative by default; there’s no have to declare it. The one cause we might declare a container-type is that if we wish a CSS Container Measurement Question as an alternative of a CSS Container Type Question.

So, actually, there isn’t a have to register a container fashion question as a result of all parts are already fashion containers proper out of the field! The one cause we’d declare container-name, then, is just to assist choose a particular container by identify when writing a method question.

Utilizing a Type Container Question

@container fashion(--bg-color: #000) {
  p { coloration: #fff; }
}

On this instance, we’re querying any matching container (as a result of all parts are fashion containers by default).

Discover how the syntax it’s lots like a conventional media question? The largest distinction is that we’re writing @container as an alternative of @media. The opposite distinction is that we’re calling a fashion() perform that holds the matching fashion situation. This fashion, a method question is differentiated from a measurement question, though there isn’t a corresponding measurement() perform.

On this occasion, we’re checking if a sure {custom} property named --bg-color is about to black (#000). If the variable’s worth matches that situation, then we’re setting paragraph (p) textual content coloration to white (#fff).

Customized Properties & Variables

.card-wrapper {
  --bg-color: #000;
}
.card {
  @container fashion(--bg-color: #000) {
    /* Customized CSS */
  }
}

Nesting Type Queries

@container fashion(--featured: true) {
  article {
    grid-column: 1 / -1;
  }
  @container fashion(--theme: darkish) {
    article {
      --bg-color: #000;
      --text: #fff;
    }
  }
}

Specification

CSS Container Queries are outlined within the CSS Containment Module Level 3 specification, which is presently in Editor’s Draft standing on the time of this writing.

Browser Help

Browser assist for CSS Container Measurement Queries is nice. It’s simply fashion queries which might be missing assist on the time of this writing.

  • Chrome 105 shipped on August 30, 2022, with assist.
  • Safari 16 shipped on September 12, 2022, with assist.
  • Firefox 110 shipped on February 14, 2023, with assist.

Desktop

Chrome Firefox IE Edge Safari
106 110 No 106 16.0

Cellular / Pill

Android Chrome Android Firefox Android iOS Safari
125 126 125 16.0

Demos!

Card Element

On this instance, a “card” element adjustments its format based mostly on the quantity of accessible house in its container.

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Name to Motion Panel

This instance is lots like these little panels for signing up for an electronic mail publication. Discover how the format adjustments thrice based on how a lot obtainable house is within the container. That is what makes CSS Container Queries so highly effective: you’ll be able to fairly actually drop this panel into any challenge and the format will reply because it ought to, because it’s based mostly on the house it’s in quite than the dimensions of the browser’s viewport.

CodePen Embed Fallback

Stepper Element

This element shows a sequence of “steps” very like a timeline. In wider containers, the stepper shows steps horizontally. But when the container turns into sufficiently small, the stepper shifts issues round in order that the steps are vertically stacked.

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Icon Button

Typically we like to brighten buttons with an icon to intensify the button’s label with just a little extra that means and context. And typically we don’t know simply how vast that button can be in any given context, which makes it powerful to know when precisely to cover the icon or re-arrange the button’s types when house turns into restricted. On this instance, an icon is exhibited to the best fringe of the button so long as there’s room to suit it beside the button label. If room runs out, the button turns into a sq. tile that stacks the icons above the label. Discover how the border-radius is about in container question models, 4cqi, which is the same as 4% of the container’s inline-size (i.e. width) and leads to rounder edges because the button grows in measurement.

CodePen Embed Fallback

Pagination

Pagination is a superb instance of a element that advantages from CSS Container Queries as a result of, relying on the quantity of house we’ve got, we are able to select to show hyperlinks to particular person pages, or cover them in favor of solely two buttons, one to paginate to older content material and one to paginate to newer content material.

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Articles & Tutorials

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Subsequent Gen CSS: @container

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251: Container Queries are the Future

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Let’s Not Overlook About Container Queries

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Minimal Takes on Faking Container Queries

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Container Measurement Question Tutorials
Container Type Queries
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