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Object Oriented Programming In Javascript: A comprehensive guide

What’s object-oriented programming?

Object-oriented programming is a programming paradigm or idea during which we wrap our information and performance into objects

The world is made up of objects, i.e.particular person, tree, automotive,college and so on.

Once we assume and write code by way of objects it’s simpler to grasp, to reuse and to scale our code.

Object Oriented Programming is totally different from purposeful programming in that the latter emphasizes on logic that manipulates objects fairly than the thing itself whereas the previous focuses on objects and provides logic to it.

A standard manner of object oriented programming is to create objects, add performance and information to it. Then discover a manner during which these objects, their subclass objects and sibling objects relate.

For instance, an animal is an object, an animal can eat, can transfer and might sleep.

We create an animal object. We add performance to this object.Among the capabilities are eat, transfer and sleep.

Discover that every one animals can eat, transfer and sleep however not all can communicate.

An individual is an animal that may communicate. By itself an individual is an object and pertains to the animal object as a result of is a subclass of animal however is particular as a result of it could actually communicate.

In OOP we discover a strategy to relate the animal object and an individual object.

That’s to say, we relate a mum or dad object(class) to its youngsters(subclass) or a mum or dad to a different mum or dad.

That’s fairly a mouthful introduction. Let’s now give attention to OOP in javascript

In javascript, information might be numbers, boolean, string, objects, arrays,capabilities and so on

Capabilities within an object are known as strategies.

Really, the time period technique is only a strategy to know that the perform we’re speaking about is inside an object.

In javascript there are three foremost methods to create an object

Allow us to create a participant object and add information and a few performance to it

The widespread manner is utilizing object literal. On this technique we create an object then add information and capabilities instantly.

//First manner
const participant = {
      identify: "John",
      rating: 6,
      increment: perform () {

   // console.log(participant)

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Once we log participant:

We will additionally create an object by first creating an empty object then add information and capabilities later

On this manner, javascript first asks, Is there a variable known as identify? if sure, it reassigns its worth.If no, it creates a brand new variable with worth and provides it to the thing.

 //Second manner
const participant = {}; //Empty object

    participant.identify = "John";
    participant.rating = 6;
    participant.increment = perform () {


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Once we log participant, you’ll discover it appears to be like just like way1:

Object oriented programming photo

We will additionally create an empty object through the use of inbuilt technique in javascript(Object.create(null)) then add information and capabilities.

So what the hell is that this Object.create(null)? We will reply this query later.

Discover that this third manner appears to be like suspiciously just like the second manner above apart from the “Object.create()” factor.

  //Third technique

const participant = Object.create(null);
    participant.identify = "John";
    participant.rating = 6;
    participant.increment = perform () {


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Let’s log participant as soon as extra:

Object oriented programming photo

Why would we use the third manner when the primary 2 methods can simply do effective? We are going to reply this query after a couple of extra explanations. Keep tuned.

Capabilities in Javascript

Capabilities allow us to implement logic i.e manipulate information, create information, retailer information and so on.

Think about you’re making a sport that requres greater than 100 gamers. Creating an object for every of the participant manually is tiresome.

That is the place we are able to use a perform that when invoked creates an object for us robotically.The one factor we have to do is to present it a reputation of the participant and a rating.

Let’s us create a perform known as playerCreator. Learn the feedback within the code to grasp how javascript runs it.Comply with the numbers to grasp which code is executed first.

// 1. playerCreator in instantiated and assigned a perform definition. Javascript leaves it that manner as a result of it's not but invoked!
perform playerCreator(identify, rating){

    //3. Javascript pairs the parameters(identify and rating) with arguments("John" and 6)

    // By this time identify has a price of John and rating has a price of 6. i.e identify: "John", rating: 6.

    // 4. Create a brand new empty object

    const newObject = {}; //Empty object

    // 5.  Add property key values to the thing

    newObject.identify = identify;

        //To the left earlier than (=) we're making a property(key) known as identify

      //To the fitting we're giving that property a price that's saved in a variable known as identify.

    newObject.rating = rating;
    newObject.increment = perform () {

    /* The ultimate participant object appears to be like this manner :
     newObject = {
        identify = "John",
        rating = 6
        increment = perform(){}
      } */

    // 6.  //We return the newObject.That is the thing that playerCreator perform has made for us!

    return newObject;


// 2. playerCreator is invoked
// 7. Assign the worth returned by  playerCreator() after its ivokation to a variable named participant.
const participant = playerCreator("John", 6)
const player2 = playerCreator("Doe", 8)

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The above code is nice… we have now solved one downside of not creating each new object by ourselves however you discover that each time an object is created the increment perform can also be created.

If we log the worth of participant and player2 we discover that they each have the increment perform:

Object oriented programming photo

There may be nothing particular about increment perform. It does the identical factor for all objects. It could be good if we are able to have such a perform in only one place from the place each object can entry it. This protects reminiscence and improves perfomance.

It seems that we are able to really implement this through the use of Object.Create() launched earlier.

In accordance with MDN: The Object.create() static technique creates a brand new object, utilizing an current object because the prototype of the newly created object.

Did you perceive what that assertion imply? If not do not feel unhealthy, quickly it is going to make sense.

… Creates a brand new object – This looks like what we initially did by creating an empty object within the playerCreator perform proper? However this time this technique does it for us

… Utilizing – For a perform or a way to make use of one thing you could give it that factor proper? We give Object.create one thing by passing it within the bracket i.e Object.create(somethingthat we give).

… an current object – The place is that this current object? It should be someplace proper? It seems that possibly there is not and subsequently the tactic will use null as a parameter or If there may be an current object it is going to use it i.e Object.create(an current object).

…because the prototype – What’s a prototype? Each object in javascript has a its personal property known as a prototype. What does this even imply?

First, keep in mind that an object has property: key worth pairs. These properties and keys might be created or are inbuilt.

These properties generally is a identify with a worth of a string, an object with a worth of an array or an object with a price of an object and so on

Prototype – That is an inbuilt property of an object in javascript which by itself is an object and has its worth as an object

Contemplate the code beneath:

object1 = {
  identify: "John",

  prototype: {
    //I'm an object, a price of prototype
    someFunc: perform () {
      //do one thing...
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Since a prototype is an object, and is a property of object1, object1 can entry prototype’s information i.e Object1.prototype.someFunc

..of the newly created object

Briefly, in our case Object.create(someObject or null), first creates a brand new object (Object1) then makes use of Object1’s property(prototype property) to assign information of someObject to prototype. The code snippet above turns into:

object1 = {
    identify: "John",

    prototype: {
        //someObject's information

        someFunc: perform(){



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To summarize, we are able to use Object.create() to cross in an object that has all capabilities and information which are widespread to all gamers and so every participant

can have entry to this object’s information as a result of there’s a bond created between the prototype(the handed in object) and the newly created object.

Wow! That’s alot. Contemplate taking a break earlier than persevering with.

On this part, let’s begin by creating an object that shops the entire widespread capabilities of gamers

const playerFunctionsStore = {
  increment: perform () {
    this.rating + 1;

    //Everytime you use "this" key phrase within a way, 'this" refers back to the object on which the tactic was known as on

    // On this case, the thing on which increment was known as on is participant, so javascript replaces "this" with participant
    // therefore this.rating++ can be participant.rating++

  login: perform () {
    console.log("logged in");
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let’s create a perform that may create objects for us.

The brand new objects can have playerFunctionsStore’s object information assigned to their prototype property(That is accomplished robotically by Object.create())

The bond between the newObject and its prototype is fomarlly known as _ _ proto_ _.

To grasp extra learn the feedback within the code

perform playerCreator(identify, rating){

//Object.create creates a brand new empty object utilizing an current object(playerFunctionsStore) as prototype of the newly created object

let newObject = Object.create(playerFunctionsStore)
      //Along with Object.create giving us a brand new object, it additionally creates a bond(_ _proto_ _) between the newly created object, newObjectand its prototype that we handed into the brackets.

      //By default, an object inherits capabilities(technique) and information from its prototype thus as a result of playerFunctionsStore is a prototype of newObject, newObject can entry capabilities resembling login and increment which are saved in playerFunctionsStore
      //To entry properties of its prototype,  newObject makes use of the bond/hyperlink formally known as _ _proto_ _

      // _ _proto_ _ is a property of objects together with newObject that javascript makes use of to search for information within the inheritance chain

 newObject.identify = identify
 newObject.rating = rating

 return newObject

 let participant = playerCreator("John", 9)
 let player2 = playerCreator("Doe", 8)

// The rating has elevated by one

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You discover from the picture beneath that increment and login perform should not on the participant and player2 objects.

Object oriented programming photo

To see these capabilities we broaden on the _ proto _:

Object oriented programming photo

This can be a nice resolution in that it saves reminiscence nevertheless, in trendy javascript we do not need to go away our info in a world retailer.

What if somebody by chance deletes the shop? Then all of our info can be misplaced.

It could be good if there isn’t a international retailer for capabilities however fairly the shop is an object within a perform. We are going to handle this concern within the subsequent part.

Additionally, what if there’s a manner in during which we needn’t use or write the Object.create() to create objects however this may be accomplished for us robotically?

It seems there may be: The new key phrase 🙂

Within the subsequent part of this text we’ll dive into using the brand new key phrase

The new key phrase

let’s begin by recreating the objects and capabilities we have now used beforehand.

The new key phrase earlier than a perform invokation does 4 issues:

  • Routinely create a brand new object
  • Assign this key phrase to the newObject therefore this.identify within the playerCreator() can be newObject.identify throughout execution
  • Javascript robotically creates _ _ proto _ _ and assigns it to the prototype property of playerCreator (the perform that’s to the fitting of the brand new key phrase)
  • Routinely returns the newObject out of that perform

Please comply with the numbers to grasp the sequence during which javascript is executing the code. Additionally learn the feedback.

// 1. Javascript instantiates a variable known as playerCreator and assigns a perform definition as its worth
perform playerCreator(identify, rating) {
  // 7. Javascript through the use of the brand new key phrase assigns "this" a price of newly created object
  this.identify = identify;
  this.rating = rating;

  // 8. Returns a newObject robotically. No manuall writing of return

// 2. Javascript will search for playerCreator then search for its key known as prototype
// 3. Then look if the prototype key has increment perform if not it is going to create the perform and retailer it within the prototype key(property).
playerCreator.prototype.increment = perform () {

// 4. Javascript will do the identical as in 2 and three
playerCreator.prototype.login = perform () {
  this.login = false;

// 5. Javascript will invoke the playerCreator perform
const participant = new playerCreator("Jose", 8);

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We understand that we get the identical outcome as we might use Object.create()

Object oriented programming photo

The draw back of this technique is that we have now to Capitalize the primary letter of the creatorfunction so we all know it requires the brand new key phrase

Due to this the category syntax was launched.

The category – Syntactic sugar

Launched in 2015

It’s cleaner however no perfomance profit

Majorly utilized in trendy frameworks resembling React.

The primary diffence in syntax is:

  • All of the shared strategies are put collectively within the constructor so there isn’t a playerCreator.prototype.someFunction
  • the constructor replaces the this.identify, this.rating and removes the parameters from being handed instantly within the playerCreator perform

Take a look at the pictures beneath to grasp the distinction. The changed components have corresponding highlighted colours

Object oriented programming photo

Object oriented programming photo

This has been a protracted article! I feel it’s price it although.

Within the subsequent article that I can be rolling out quickly, we’ll talk about extra on courses, and introduce the Manufacturing facility capabilities

Want you properly in your programming journey!

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